Protective effect of Ganoderma on Diabetes

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Ganoderma Lucidum on treatment of Diabetes

Ganoderma lucidum
(G. lucidum) has been reported to be an effective treatment for diabetes. Triterpenoids, proteins, glycoproteins, and polysaccharides present in G. lucidum, exhibit hypoglycemic effects. [1]
Polysaccharides prevent hyperglycemia by regulating the expression of a variety of critical enzymes in the glucose metabolic pathway, such as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, hepatic glucokinase, phosphofructokinase, glycogen phosphorylase, hepatic fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatases, and glucose-6-phosphatase. [2]
They have an enzyme called a non-competitive cholesterol esterase inhibitor that makes it easier for the body to absorb dietary fat; blocking this enzyme reduces the body’s ability to absorb cholesterol. [3]
Triterpenoids have aldose reductase and α-glucosidase inhibitory actions, which are related to diabetes problems and glucose metabolism. [4]
Triterpenoids control retinal function in individuals who suffer from type II diabetes. [5]
Ganoderol B, extracted from a chloroform extract of G. lucidum, was effective in blocking α-glucosidase activity. [6]
The proteoglycan extracted from G. lucidum fruiting bodies improves glycogen synthesis and stops the expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3β in mice liver tissues and HepG2 cells through altering insulin receptor substrate 1. [7]
Proteoglycan derived from G. lucidum fruiting bodies reduces insulin resistance by controlling IRS1-glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT-4) cascades in the insulin signaling pathway. [8]
G. lucidum enhances the plasma biochemistry indexes linked to T2DM-accompanied metabolic disorders, such as density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), free fatty acids, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). [9]
The hypoglycaemic effect caused by G. lucidum fruiting bodies is linked to its capacity to boost insulin secretion, reduce hepatic glucose production, and promote adipose and skeletal muscle glucose disposal. [10]
Polysaccharides from G. lucidum showed a protective effect against alloxan-induced damage to pancreatic islets. Pre-treatment with intragastric G. lucidum for 10 days produced hypoglycaemic effects through its scavenging ability to protect the pancreatic β-cells from alloxan-induced necrosis. [11]
Administration of polysaccharides from G. lucidum produced hypoglycaemic effects and improved lipid profile in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. [12]
A study in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats provided a hydroethanolic extract of G. lucidum containing β-glucan, proteins, and phenols, decreased plasma glucose and lipid levels while maintaining pancreatic islets. [13]
An immunomodulatory protein obtained from the mycelial extracts of G. lucidum reduced the incidence of autoimmune diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice by lowering antigen-induced antibody production. [14]
Compounds derived from fruiting bodies of G. lucidum such as ganoderenic acid K and the farnesyl hydroquinones had significant inhibitory effects against HMG-CoA reductase. [15]
Fruiting bodies of G. lucidum might lower blood glucose, reduce body weight, and improve insulin resistance in ob/ob mice. [16]
Clinical investigations involving individuals with type II diabetes demonstrated that G. lucidum extract is helpful in decreasing blood glucose levels comparable to oral anti-diabetic medications and insulin. [17]


[1] Batra, P., Sharma, A.K., Khajuria, R., 2013. Probing Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes): a bitter mushroom with amazing health benefits. Int. J. Med. Mushrooms 15 (2).
[2] Xiao C, Wu QP, Cai W, Tan JB, Yang XB, Zhang JM. 2012. Hypoglycemic effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides in type 2 diabetic mice. Arch Pharm Res. 35(10):1793–1801.
[3] Jia, J., Zhang, X., Hu, Y.S., Wu, Y., Wang, Q.Z., Li, N.N., Guo, Q.C., Dong, X.C., 2009. Evaluation of in vivo antioxidant activities of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides in STZ-diabetic rats. Food Chem. 115 (1), 32–36.

[4] Schemmel, K.E., Padiyara, R.S., D’Souza, J.J., 2010. Aldose reductase inhibitors in the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a review. J. Diabetes Complicat. 24 (5), 354–360.
[5] Zhang, H.N., He, J.H., Yuan, L., Lin, Z.B., 2003. In vitro and in vivo protective effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on alloxan-induced pancreatic islets damage. Life Sci. 73 (18), 2307–2319.
[6] Fatmawati S, Shimizu K, Kondo R.. 2011a. Ganoderol B: a potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitor isolated from the fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum. Phytomedicine. 18(12):1053–1055.
[7] Yang Z, Chen C, Zhao J, Xu W, He Y, Yang H, Zhou P.. 2018a. Hypoglycemic mechanism of a novel proteoglycan, extracted from Ganoderma lucidum, in hepatocytes. Eur J Pharmacol. 820:77–85.
[8] Yang Z, Wu F, He Y, Zhang Q, Zhang Y, Zhou G, Yang H, Zhou P.. 2018b. A novel PTP1B inhibitor extracted from Ganoderma lucidum ameliorates insulin resistance by regulating IRS1-GLUT4 cascades in the insulin signaling pathway. Food Funct. 9(1):397–406.
[9] Teng BS, Wang CD, Zhang D, Wu JS, Pan D, Pan LF, Yang HJ, Zhou P. 2012. Hypoglycemic effect and mechanism of a proteoglycan from Ganoderma lucidum on streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 16(2):166–175.
[10] Pan D, Zhang D, Wu J, Chen C, Xu Z, Yang H, Zhou P. 2014. A novel proteoglycan from Ganoderma lucidum fruiting bodies protects kidney function and ameliorates diabetic nephropathy via its antioxidant activity in C57BL/6 db/db mice. Food Chem Toxicol. 63:111–118.
[11] Zheng J, Yang B, Yu Y, Chen Q, Huang T, Li D.. 2012. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides exert anti-hyperglycemic effect on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats through affecting β-cells. Comb Chem High Throughput Screen. 15(7):542–550.
[12] Li F, Zhang Y, Zhong Z.. 2011. Antihyperglycemic effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Int J Mol Sci. 12(9):6135–6145.
[13] Bach EE, Hi EMB, Martins AMC, Nascimento PAM, Wadt NSY.. 2018. Hypoglicemic and hypolipedimic effects of Ganoderma lucidum in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Medicines (Basel). 5(3):78.
[14] Kino K, Mizumoto K, Sone T, Yamaji T, Watanabe J, Yamashita A, Yamaoka K, Shimizu K, Ko K, Tsunoo H.. 1990. An immunomodulating protein, Ling Zhi-8 (LZ-8) prevents insulitis in non-obese diabetic mice. Diabetologia. 33(12):713–718.
[15] Chen B, Tian J, Zhang J, Wang K, Liu L, Yang B, Bao L, Liu H.. 2017. Triterpenes and meroterpenes from Ganoderma lucidum with inhibitory activity against HMGs reductase, aldose reductase and α-glucosidase. Fitoterapia. 120:6–16.
[16] Yang Z, Wu F , He Y, Zhang Q, Zhang Y, Zhou G, Yang H, Zhou P (2018) A novel PTP1B inhibitor extracted from G. lucidum ameliorates insulin resistance by regulating IRS1-GLUT4 cascades in the insulin signaling pathway. Food Funct 9(1):397–406.
[17] Gao Y, Lan J, Dai X, Ye J, Zhou S. A phase I/II study of ling zhi mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.,Fr.) Lloyd (Aphyllophoromycetidae) extract in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. Int J Med Mushrooms 2004; 6: 33-39.